...one of the most highly
regarded and expertly designed C++ library projects in the
world.

— Herb Sutter and Andrei
Alexandrescu, C++
Coding Standards

#include <boost/math/tools/rational.hpp>

// Polynomials: template <std::size_t N, class T, class V> V evaluate_polynomial(const T(&poly)[N], const V& val); template <std::size_t N, class T, class V> V evaluate_polynomial(const boost::array<T,N>& poly, const V& val); template <class T, class U> U evaluate_polynomial(const T* poly, U z, std::size_t count); // Even polynomials: template <std::size_t N, class T, class V> V evaluate_even_polynomial(const T(&poly)[N], const V& z); template <std::size_t N, class T, class V> V evaluate_even_polynomial(const boost::array<T,N>& poly, const V& z); template <class T, class U> U evaluate_even_polynomial(const T* poly, U z, std::size_t count); // Odd polynomials template <std::size_t N, class T, class V> V evaluate_odd_polynomial(const T(&a)[N], const V& z); template <std::size_t N, class T, class V> V evaluate_odd_polynomial(const boost::array<T,N>& a, const V& z); template <class T, class U> U evaluate_odd_polynomial(const T* poly, U z, std::size_t count); // Rational Functions: template <std::size_t N, class T, class V> V evaluate_rational(const T(&a)[N], const T(&b)[N], const V& z); template <std::size_t N, class T, class V> V evaluate_rational(const boost::array<T,N>& a, const boost::array<T,N>& b, const V& z); template <class T, class U, class V> V evaluate_rational(const T* num, const U* denom, V z, unsigned count);

Each of the functions come in three variants: a pair of overloaded functions where the order of the polynomial or rational function is evaluated at compile time, and an overload that accepts a runtime variable for the size of the coefficient array. Generally speaking, compile time evaluation of the array size results in better type safety, is less prone to programmer errors, and may result in better optimised code. The polynomial evaluation functions in particular, are specialised for various array sizes, allowing for loop unrolling, and one hopes, optimal inline expansion.

template <std::size_t N, class T, class V> V evaluate_polynomial(const T(&poly)[N], const V& val); template <std::size_t N, class T, class V> V evaluate_polynomial(const boost::array<T,N>& poly, const V& val); template <class T, class U> U evaluate_polynomial(const T* poly, U z, std::size_t count);

Evaluates the polynomial
described by the coefficients stored in *poly*.

If the size of the array is specified at runtime, then the polynomial most
have order *count-1* with *count* coefficients.
Otherwise it has order *N-1* with *N*
coefficients.

Coefficients should be stored such that the coefficients for the x^{i} terms are
in poly[i].

The types of the coefficients and of variable *z* may differ
as long as **poly* is convertible to type *U*.
This allows, for example, for the coefficient table to be a table of integers
if this is appropriate.

template <std::size_t N, class T, class V> V evaluate_even_polynomial(const T(&poly)[N], const V& z); template <std::size_t N, class T, class V> V evaluate_even_polynomial(const boost::array<T,N>& poly, const V& z); template <class T, class U> U evaluate_even_polynomial(const T* poly, U z, std::size_t count);

As above, but evaluates an even polynomial: one where all the powers of *z*
are even numbers. Equivalent to calling ```
evaluate_polynomial(poly,
z*z, count)
```

.

template <std::size_t N, class T, class V> V evaluate_odd_polynomial(const T(&a)[N], const V& z); template <std::size_t N, class T, class V> V evaluate_odd_polynomial(const boost::array<T,N>& a, const V& z); template <class T, class U> U evaluate_odd_polynomial(const T* poly, U z, std::size_t count);

As above but evaluates a polynomial where all the powers are odd numbers. Equivalent
to ```
evaluate_polynomial(poly+1, z*z, count-1)
* z + poly[0]
```

.

template <std::size_t N, class T, class U, class V> V evaluate_rational(const T(&num)[N], const U(&denom)[N], const V& z); template <std::size_t N, class T, class U, class V> V evaluate_rational(const boost::array<T,N>& num, const boost::array<U,N>& denom, const V& z); template <class T, class U, class V> V evaluate_rational(const T* num, const U* denom, V z, unsigned count);

Evaluates the rational function (the ratio of two polynomials) described by
the coefficients stored in *num* and *demom*.

If the size of the array is specified at runtime then both polynomials most
have order *count-1* with *count* coefficients.
Otherwise both polynomials have order *N-1* with *N*
coefficients.

Array *num* describes the numerator, and *demon*
the denominator.

Coefficients should be stored such that the coefficients for the x^{i } terms are
in num[i] and denom[i].

The types of the coefficients and of variable *v* may differ
as long as **num* and **denom* are convertible
to type *V*. This allows, for example, for one or both of
the coefficient tables to be a table of integers if this is appropriate.

These functions are designed to safely evaluate the result, even when the value
*z* is very large. As such they do not take advantage of
compile time array sizes to make any optimisations. These functions are best
reserved for situations where *z* may be large: if you can
be sure that numerical overflow will not occur then polynomial evaluation with
compile-time array sizes may offer slightly better performance.

Polynomials are evaluated by Horners method. If the array size is known at compile time then the functions dispatch to size-specific implementations that unroll the evaluation loop.

Rational evaluation is by Horners
method: with the two polynomials being evaluated in parallel to make
the most of the processors floating-point pipeline. If *v*
is greater than one, then the polynomials are evaluated in reverse order as
polynomials in *1/v*: this avoids unnecessary numerical
overflow when the coefficients are large.

Both the polynomial and rational function evaluation algorithms can be tuned using various configuration macros to provide optimal performance for a particular combination of compiler and platform. This includes support for second-order Horner's methods. The various options are documented here. However, the performance benefits to be gained from these are marginal on most current hardware, consequently it's best to run the performance test application before changing the default settings.